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"áÃè" µÒÁ¾ÃÐÃÒªºÑ­­ÑµÔáÃè ¾.È. 2510

áÃè ËÁÒ¤ÇÒÁÇèÒ :- "·ÃѾÂҡøóշÕèà»ç¹ ͹Թ·ÃÕÂìÇѵ¶Ø ÁÕÊèǹ»ÃСͺ·Ò§à¤ÁաѺÅѡɳзҧ¿ÔÊÔ¡Êìá¹è¹Í¹ËÃ×Íà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ ä´éàÅ硹éÍ äÁèÇèҨеéͧ ¶ÅاËÃ×ÍËÅÍÁ¡è͹ãªéËÃ×ÍäÁè áÅÐËÁÒÂÃÇÁ µÅÍ´¶Ö§¶èÒ¹ËÔ¹ ËÔ¹¹éÓÁѹ ËÔ¹Íè͹ âÅËÐáÅеСÃѹ ·Õèä´é¨Ò¡âÅË¡ÃÃÁ ¹éÓà¡Å×Íãµé ´Ô¹ ËÔ¹«Ö觡®¡ÃзÃǧ¡Ó˹´ãËé à»ç¹ËÔ¹»ÃдѺ ËÃ×ÍËÔ¹ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ áÅдԹËÃ×Í ·ÃÒ «Ö觡®¡ÃзÃǧ¡Ó˹´ à»ç¹´Ô¹ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ ËÃ×Í·ÃÒÂÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ ·Ñ駹ÕéäÁèÃÇÁ¶Ö§¹éÓ à¡Å×ÍÊÔ¹à¸ÒÇì ÅÙ¡Ãѧ ËÔ¹ ´Ô¹ ËÃ×Í·ÃÒÂ

"áÃè " ·Ò§ÇÔªÒ¡ÒÃËÁÒ¶֧¸ÒµØËÃ×ÍÊÒûÃСͺ͹Թ·ÃÕÂì·ÕèÁÕà¹×éÍà´ÕÂǡѹ à¡Ô´¢Öé¹µÒÁ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ ÁÕâ¤Ã§ÊÃéÒ§áÅÐÊèǹ»ÃСͺ·Ò§à¤ÁÕ µÅÍ´¨¹¤Ø³ÊÁºÑµÔ·Ò§à¤ÁÕ ·Ò§¡ÒÂÀÒ¾ áÅзҧáʧ ੾ÒеÑÇ áÃèÍÒ¨ »ÃСͺ´éǸҵØà¾Õ§¸ÒµØà´ÕÂÇ àÃÕ¡ÇèҸҵظÃÃÁªÒµÔ (native element) ËÃ×Íà»ç¹ÊÒûÃСͺ¢Í§¸ÒµØµÑé§áµè 2 ª¹Ô´¢Öé¹ä» àªè¹ áÃè«ÑÅä¿´ì (sulfides) «Öè§à»ç¹ÊÒûÃСͺ¢Í§¡ÓÁжѹ µÑÇÍÂèÒ§àªè¹ áÃèµÐ¡ÑèÇ¡ÒÅÕ¹Ò (PbS) áÃèÍÍ¡ä«´ì «Öè§à»ç¹ ÊÒûÃСͺ¢Í§ÍÍ¡«Ôਹ àªè¹ áÃèàËÅç¡áÁ¡¹Õä·µì (magnetite, Fe3O4) ËÃ×ÍáÃè«ÔÅÔࡵ (silicates) «Öè§à»ç¹ÊÒûÃСͺ¢Í§¡ÅØèÁ¸ÒµØ«ÔÅԤ͹ (Si) ÍÍ¡«Ôਹ (O) áÅиҵØÍ×è¹ æ àªè¹ ÍÍÃìâ·à¤ÅÊ (orthoclase, KAlSi3O8) à»ç¹µé¹

¡ÒèÓṡª¹Ô´¢Í§áÃè ÍÒ¨áºè§ÍÍ¡µÒÁÊèǹ»ÃСͺ·Ò§à¤ÁÕ ´Ñ§¹Õé ¤×Í

    1. ¸ÒµØ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ (native elements) àªè¹ ·Í§¤Ó (gold, Au) á¾Å·Ô¹ÑÁ (platinum, Pt)
    2. «ÑÅä¿´ì (sulfides) àªè¹ âÁÅÔº´Õä¹µì (molybdenite, MoS2) ¤ÒÅâ¤ä¾äõì (chalcopyrite, CuFeS2)
    3. «ÑÅâ¿«Íŵì (sulfosalts) àªè¹ ÍÕ¹ÒÃì䨵ì (enargite, Cu3AsS4)
    4. ÍÍ¡ä«´ì (oxides) àªè¹ ¤ÔÇä¾Ãµì (cuprite, Cu2O) áÅÐäδÃÍ¡ä«´ì (hydroxides) àªè¹ ºÃÙ䫵ì (brucite, Mg(OH)2)
    5. àÎäŵì (halite, NaCl) ¿ÅÙÍÍäõì (fluorite, CaF2) «ÔÅäǵì (sylvite, KCl)
    6. ¤ÒÃìºÍ๵ (carbonates) àªè¹ á¤Å䫵ì (calcite, CaCO3)
    7. ä¹àµÃµ (nitratess) àªè¹ ä¹àµÍÃì (niter, KNO3)
    8. ºÍàõ (borates) àªè¹ ºÍáá«ì (borax, Na2B4O7.10H2O)
    9. ¿ÍÊ࿵ (phosphates) àªè¹ ÍоÒä·µì (apatite, Ca5(F, Cl, OH)(PO4)3)
    10. «ÑÅ࿵ (sulfates) àªè¹ áºäõì (barite, BaSO4)
    11. «ÔÅÔࡵ (silicates) à»ç¹¡ÅØèÁ¢Í§áÃè·ÕèÁÕÊèǹ»ÃСͺ¢Í§¸ÒµØ«ÔÅԤ͹áÅÐÍÍ¡«Ôਹ ÃèÇÁ¡Ñº¸ÒµØ Í×è¹æ ¨Ó¾Ç¡â«à´ÕÂÁ â¾á·Êà«ÕÂÁ á¤Åà«ÕÂÁ áÁ¡¹Õà«ÕÂÁ ÍÐÅÙÁÔà¹ÕÂÁ áÅÐàËÅç¡ µÑÇÍÂèÒ§àªè¹ áÃè âÍÅÔÇÕ¹ (olivine: (Mg, Fe)2SiO4) àºÃÔÅ (beryl : Be3Al2(Si6O18)) ·ÑÅ¡ì (talc : Mg3(Si4O10) (OH)2) à»ç¹µé¹

¡ÒèÓṡª¹Ô´¢Í§áÃèµÒÁ¤Ø³»ÃÐ⪹ìã¹·Ò§àÈÃÉ°¡Ô¨ ÍÒ¨áºè§ÍÍ¡à»ç¹ 2 ¡ÅØèÁ ¤×Í :-

    1. áÃèàÈÃÉ°¡Ô¨ (economic minerals) áÅÐáÃèÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ (indutry minerals) ËÁÒ¶֧ áÃè·ÕèÁդس¤èÒ·Ò§àÈÃÉ°¡Ô¨ËÃ×ÍÁÕ»ÃÐâª¹ì µèÍÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁµèÒ§æ áºè§ÍÍ¡à»ç¹ 2 »ÃÐàÀ· ¤×ÍáÃèâÅËÐ (metallic minerals) áÅÐáÃèÍâÅËÐ (non metallic minerals)

ª¹Ô´áÃè »ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÓÃͧ á¼¹·ÕèáÊ´§¾×é¹·ÕèÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾·Ò§áÃè á¼¹·ÕèáÊ´§ºÃÔàdz·Õ辺áÃè

ª¹Ô´áÃè

»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÓÃͧ (àÁµÃÔ¡µÑ¹)

à¡Ã´à©ÅÕèÂ

á¼¹·ÕèáÊ´§¾×é¹·ÕèÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾áÃè áÅÐáËÅ觾ºáÃè

1. àËÅç¡

47,849,902

40-70 % Fe

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾/áËÅ觾ºáÃè

2. áÁ§¡Ò¹ÕÊ

789,900

25-60 % MnO2

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾ /áËÅ觾ºáÃè

3. â¤ÃäÁµì

2,000

42 % CrO2

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾

4. ·Í§á´§

96,518,400

~ 1 % Cu

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾ /áËÅ觾ºáÃè

5. µÐ¡ÑèÇ

3,000,000

µÐ¡ÑèÇ + Êѧ¡ÐÊÕ

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾/áËÅ觾ºáÃè

6. Êѧ¡ÐÊÕ

300,000

-

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾/áËÅ觾ºáÃè

7. ¾Åǧ

421,500

50 % Sb

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾/áËÅ觾ºáÃè

8. ´ÕºØ¡

336,995

ÊÔ¹áÃè 100-1,000 ¡ÃÑÁ/ź.Á.

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾/áËÅ觾ºáÃè

9. ·Í§¤Ó

2,746,300

ÊÔ¹áÃè 0.13-3.4 ¡ÃÑÁ/µÑ¹

áËÅ觾ºáÃè

10. áÃè˹ѡÁÕ¤èÒ

61,100

-

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾

11. áºäõì

6,152,000

80-95% BaSO4

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾/áËÅ觾ºáÃè

12. ¿ÅÙÍÍäõì

4,703,500

-

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾/áËÅ觾ºáÃè

13. ÂÔ»«ÑÁ

202,200,000

94-98% CaSO4H2O

áËÅ觾ºáÃè

14. ¿ÍÊ࿵

181,000

14-35% P2O5

áËÅ觾ºáÃè

15. â¾á·ª

407 x 106

10-37% K2O

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾

16. à¡Å×ÍËÔ¹

18 x 1012

90 % NaCl

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾ /áËÅ觾ºáÃè

17. â´âÅäÁµì

2,155.75x106

>18% MgO

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾ /áËÅ觾ºáÃè

18. à¿Å´ìÊ»ÒÃì

11,883,500

5.4-13.4 % K2O 4-10.7 % Na2O

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾ /áËÅ觾ºáÃè

19. áÁ¡¹Õ䫵ì

1,616,100

-

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾

20. ´Ô¹¢ÒÇ

252,457,000

35-37% Al2O3

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾ /áËÅ觾ºáÃè

21. ºÍÅà¤ÅÂì

560,000

-

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾ /áËÅ觾ºáÃè

22. ູ·Íä¹µì

120,000

-

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾ /áËÅ觾ºáÃè

23. ´Ô¡ä¤µì

2,070,000

-

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾ /áËÅ觾ºáÃè

24. ´Ô¹ÊÕ

62,716,000

-

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾ /áËÅ觾ºáÃè

25. ´Ô¹àºÒ (ä´ÍзÍäÁµì)

1,050 x 106

-

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾ /áËÅ觾ºáÃè

26. ·ÃÒÂá¡éÇ

110 x 106

-

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾ /áËÅ觾ºáÃè

27. áÍÊàºÊ·ÍÊ

5,000

-

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾ /áËÅ觾ºáÃè

28. ´Ô¹ÁÒÃìÅ

100 x 106

50 % CaCO3

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾ /áËÅ觾ºáÃè

29. àÍàÁÍÃÕ

20,000

MIXED

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾ /áËÅ觾ºáÃè

30. Ãѵ¹ªÒµÔ-¾ÅÍÂ

15.4

¤Ø³ÀÒ¾µèÓ

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾ /áËÅ觾ºáÃè

31. ¶èÒ¹ËÔ¹

2,086.37x106

1,000 - 8,000 á¤ÅÍÃÕ/¡ÃÑÁ

ÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾ /áËÅ觾ºáÃè

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